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Biographies of artists
Where possible, these biographies were written by the artists themselves; otherwise they were written by curator Swosti Rajbhandari Kayastha.
Individual pages of each biography can by accessed via the links shown here; artists' names in captions of works are also linked:
Lain Singh Bangdel, Lok Chitrakar, Asha Dangol, Chandra Dangol, Pramila Giri, Ragini Upadhayay Grela, Hit Man Gurung, Manish Harijan, Koshal Hamal, Kabi Raj Lama, Mekh Limbu, Lachhman Maharjan, Sanjeev Maharjan, Sunita Maharjan, Kiran Manandhar, Manuj Babu Mishra, Sheelasha Rajbhandari, Ashmina Ranjit, Ajit Kumar Sah, Seema Sharma Shah, Shashi Bikram Shah, Uma Shankar Shah, Anil Shahi, Rabindra Shakya, Rajan Shakya, Siddhi Muni Shakya, Surendra Man Shakya, Gopal Kalapremi Shrestha, Laxman Shrestha, Samundra Man Shrestha, Uday Charan Shrestha, Sunil Sigdel, Birendra Pratap Singh, S. C. Suman, Erina Tamrakar, Mukti Singh Thapa, Ang Tsherin
Lain Singh Bangdel (1919–2002)
The late Sir Lain Singh Bangdel, artist, writer, and art historian, is a distinguished figure in Nepal in the field of art, literature, and culture. A forerunner of the modern art movement, he is also best known as the father of modern art in Nepal. He completed his art education at the Calcutta College of Art, graduating first in his class in 1945 before going on to study at the I’Ecole Nationale Superieure des Beaux Arts, in Paris. In France, he met many renowned contemporary artists during the formative stage of his professional career, such as Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso. His unique style of work, influenced, in part, by established artists of the era, his paintings are a rare synthesis of the traditional and the modern that has given rise to a style truly international in character. After establishing his artistic career in Europe in the 1950s, in 1960 the then King Mahendra invited Lain to move to Nepal to become a member of the Royal Nepal Academy in Kathmandu, where he would further pursue his art. He gracefully accepted the offer, since returning to his homeland was the realization of one of his lifelong dreams. Under King Birendra, he was later promoted and served two terms as Chancellor of the Royal Nepal Academy from 1979 to 1989.
Bangdel first exhibited his works to a western public in Stuttgart, Germany, in 1954 and later in Paris. He held his first solo exhibition in Paris, in 1955, and again in London, in 1959. He also participated in many group shows in several venues throughout Europe. His first solo exhibition in Nepal was held in 1962, and he would later participate in many other group exhibitions in the years that followed. He organized a successful solo exhibition in Philadelphia, United States of America, in 1991.
Bangdel organized several outstanding exhibitions and was able to open new vistas in modern art to new generations of Nepalese artists. In addition to his prolific career in the visual arts, Bangdel left a commendable legacy to Nepal by donating meticulous documentation on Nepalese arts and artifacts compiled over the course of a professional life in Nepal spanning forty years. Drawing on this documentation, his book Stolen Images of Nepal set out to prove the stolen cultural heritage of his country, and was hence extremely helpful in facilitating the return of several important objets d’art in Nepal.
In commemoration of his outstanding achievements in art, culture, and literature, he was awarded the Gorkha Dakshin Bahu II, by the King of Nepal in 1982. His accolades also include the Commendatore from the Italian Government for his contribution in the field of art, and the National Order of Arts and Letters, from the Republic of France (France’s highest honour in the field of art). He was also awarded the prestigious Knight Commander of Royal Victorian Order by Great Britain, hence earning the title Sir Lain Singh Bangdel.
Written by Swosti Rajbhandari Kayastha
I was born in Kathmandu, Nepal in 1961 to a long lineage of Newar artists. Over the years I have received international acknowledgement as one of the few living masters of traditional Paubha painting. Preserving an ancient practice in painting, I use pigments ground from stone and plant matter. Having been brought up in a city rich in religious festivals and architecture, I would spend hours observing images in the local temples. I completed my first painting at the age of twelve. Soon after leaving school, I continued a rigorous, self-directed study of classical texts and images.
I have been a guest lecturer and instructor at universities and institutes throughout the world, including the Seian University of Arts and Design, Japan, Orivesi Institute, Finland, and the Elmira College, New York, and am visiting faculty member at Kathmandu University. My work has been presented in solo-and group exhibitions in Finland, India, Japan, Nepal, Russia, and the United States, and displayed in museums and private collections throughout Asia, Europe, and the United States.
I have been the recipient of many awards, including the Rastriya Pratibha Puraskar, 2069 (National Talent Award, 2013) from the Ministry of Culture and the Patan Museum Award, Patan, Nepal, 2012. I continue to engage in both local and international art communities. I completed the installation of 108 Avalokitesvara paintings for the Kanzion Mandala Museum, in Tokyo, wall paintings at the Golden Temple and, most recently, on Patan Gate, the entrance gate of Lalitpur.
I gained my MFA from Tribhuvan University and BFA from the Fine Arts College, Kathmandu. I co-founded the Kasthamandap Art Studio and E-Arts Nepal. I have been producing and exhibiting my art since 1992. I have held eleven solo exhibitions with one retrospective show in Nepal, and my work has been exhibited internationally. I have collaborated with sculptors, musicians, poets and photographers; to convey my ideas I have experimented in mixed media, installations, painting, ceramics, performance and interactive artworks. I have participated in national and international art camps, workshops and residency programs. I have been awarded with the Arniko Youth Award, 2003; the Best Prize – National Film Festival, 2005; the First Prize National Art Exhibition, from the Nepal Association of Fine Arts, 2006; the Special Regional Award, National Art Exhibition, Nepal Academy of Fine Arts, 2013; the NAC Travel Grant 2015/16 from Nepal Art Council.
My works have been collected by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Nepal, the Embassy of India- Nepal, the Nepal Art Council, Himalayan Bank, the Nepal Investment Bank, the Sunrise Bank, the Agni Group, the Chaudhary Group, the Fulbari Resort, the Civil Group, the Ghalia Art Foundation-Kenya, the Andaman Art Museum-Thailand, Vertical Gallery, Thailand, the Flamingo Group-Vietnam, the Sasaran Art Museum, Malaysia, the Chautara Gallery, Holland, the D.P. Dhar Memorial Trust, India, the Vishnu Manchu Art Foundation, India, Kalakriti Art Gallery, India, and by private collections in Nepal and abroad. I contribute short articles on Nepali contemporary art and artists for SPACES magazine. I live and work in Kathmandu. My works may be viewed at www.asha-erina.com or www.eartsnepal.com.
I have been practicing traditional sculpture for a quarter of a century. I have participated in numerous local and international art events of the years, including the Shanghai Expo 2010, an art exhibition in Canada, a solo exhibition of traditional stone sculptures entitled Inheritance in Nepal at the Nepal Art Council in Kathmandu. I completed a thirty three - foot tall stone sculpture of Maha Manjushree at Chobhar Hill, in Kathmandu. I am also currently working on a one-hundred-foot tall sculpture of Mahadev at Mahashila in Pokhara. In addition to my artwork, I have also allocated time to teach sculpture to new generations. I taught sculpture at the Sirjana College of Fine Arts, and am presently distinguished professor at the Suzhou Institute for Art and Design Technology in China. At my Khokana Stone Carving studio I create stone sculptures of various dimensions, ranging from small to monumental stone sculptures. I also teach young people from time to time.
My roots and my inspiration lie in the plains of Nepal. My grandmother – an independent woman who had struggled for her rights as a young widow – was a great influence on me. Placing their trust in me, my parents sent me to Rabindranath Tagore University at Shantiniketan, India. Tagore and his art teachers envisioned an Indian contextual modernism, which was inspired by a respected for nature and the need to relate art to life and culture. This unique foundation engendered in me a consciousness and a sense of direction.
Once returned from India I began teaching contemporary sculpture at the Lalit Kala Campus in Kathmandu before travelling to the United States to complete my MFA. I have held solo exhibitions in Nepal, India, Norway, and the United States from the late seventies to the present. My extended periods of stay in Tibet have influenced my art considerably. My time in Nepal and Norway from the early 2000s on provided me with the opportunity to explore and cultivate my integrity as a Nepalese artist.
Ragini Upadhayay Grela
I graduated with a degree in Fine Art from the Lucknow College of Arts, India in 1982, before receiving a British Council fellowship to Peacock Printmakers, Aberdeen, Scotland in 1987 and to Oxford Printmakers, Oxford, Great Britain. I received a grant to attend a printmaking course at the Stuttgart Kunst Academy, Germany in 1989. I was awarded the Kate and Robart Wilson Prize, Bradford Great Britain, in 1984 and the National Award in 1979, 1985 and 1988. I received the Birendra Aishwarya Memorial Medal by the Late King and Queen in 2002. I received the Best Award – 100 years Lucknow College of Arts in 2011, and the Toran Kumari Memorial Award in 2014.
I was visiting lecturer at Lahti Fine Art Academy and Pekka Art Academy, Helsinki 1996 Turku College of Arts, Turku, Finland in 1996 and 2009 as well as to the Karachi School of Art, the Indus School of Art, Karachi, Pakistan in 1996, and to the School of Art and Design, Jamshoro, Sindha 2006/07. I have held talks at the Helsingborg Museum, Helsingborg, Sweden between 1998/99, and at Oulu University, Oulu, Finland in 1998, in FOMMA, Karachi in 2010, and at the National Art Gallery, Islamabad in 2011. I have held 58 solo exhibitions of my work in Nepal and all around the world. My works are shown in numerous international private and museum’s collections. I have just completed my term as Chancellor of the Nepal Academy of Fine Art.
Hit Man Gurung
I was born in Nepal’s Lamjung district in 1982 and am currently based in Kathmandu. I completed my M.F.A. from the Central Department of Fine Arts in Tribhuwan University in 2012. I have been actively participating in national and international art exhibitions/events in various galleries and museums. My series of work is a direct response to some of the most pressing socio-political issues of Nepal. Most of my artwork addresses mass migration and haphazard urban development, aspects that are consequences of the ten-year Maoist civil war and a reflection of an unstable, apathetic government. Deeply concerned about the impact of these larger forces on individuals, communities and societies I aim to infuse my paintings, documentary photo collages, and installation work with political conviction and personal poetry. I been invited by various international cultural institutions and arts centers for residencies and programs. My artworks have been collected by prestigious museums, institutions and private collections, such as the Queensland Art Gallery/Gallery of Modern Art, Brisbane, Australia, the Welt Museum Wien, Vienna, Austria, and the World Bank, Washington DC. I am a co-founder of the artists’ collective ArTree Nepal.
Selection of group shows:
2018 - 4th Dhaka Art Summit “Bearing Point” curated by Diana Campbell Betancourt.
2017 - “International Art Residency” Para Site Art Center, Hong Kong
2017 - 1st Kathmandu Triennale curated Philippe Van Cauteren.
2016 - The First Yinchuan Biennale “ For An Image Faster Than Light” curated by Bose Krishnamachari, MOCA Yinchuan, China.
2016 - “Afterwork” at Para Site Art Center, curated by Cosmin Costinas & Inti Guerrero Hong Kong.
2016 - "Mining Warm Data” 3rd Dhaka Art Summit curated by Diana Campbell Betancourt.
2016 - India Art Fair 2016 represented by Nepal Art Council, Nepal and Blueprint12 Gallery, India.
2015 - The 8th Asia Pacific Triennial of Contemporary Art (APT8), Brisbane Queensland, Australia.
2013 - International Artists Residency Granted by City of Los Angeles, Department of Cultural Affairs at 18th Street Arts Center, Santa Monica, USA.
2011 - Recipient of ‘The Australian Himalayan foundation art award’ supporting young artists in the Himalayan region
I am a Nepalese artist who works in various disciplines. I graduated from Kathmandu University in 2011, and am currently studying for a postgraduate degree in fine arts at the Sheffield Institute of Arts in Hallam University Sheffield, UK. I participated in several national and international artist-inresidence programs, as well as in group exhibitions, most notably: India Art Fair New Delhi, 2016; Switch Art Exhibition, Jakarta, Indonesia, 2017; Artquake October Gallery, London, 2015; ROSL Gallery London, 2014; Utopia artist-in-residence, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2013; KCAC artist-inresidence, Patan Museum, Nepal, 2012. Siddhartha Art Gallery, Kathmandu organised two solo exhibitions in 2011 and 2012. My controversial solo-exhibition at the Siddhartha Art Gallery, Kathmandu in 2012, depicted Hindu images along with western popular culture images. The show was closed and a ban was placed on the public exhibition of my paintings. I received death-threats, which led UNESCO to the publication of a press-release in support of my work.
I find inspiration in eastern mythology, history, personal memories and western popular culture. My work draws on images in the field of art, history, mythology and popular culture, as well as memories from my childhood. By combining these various elements, I explore the residual potential of the unknown. My works are often humorous and ironical. Utilizing the possibilities of multimedia in my MFA, my work is inspired by eastern and western cultures.
My interest in the history of visual arts and literature led me to read and critically assess many books. Looking at an object and de-contextualizing its meaning became a part of my artistic practice. I sought the truth in past artefacts. I sought to establish a dialogue between the artefact and its social significance. I play with semiotics in my works. Conceptually and culturally, a tiny, framed image in the centre of a canvas represents a significant era in history. My works are based on the idea of appropriation and broad contemporary visual cultures, while he notion of the identity and representation of mis-representation constitute key aspects in my work.
Kabi Raj Lama
I am a professional printmaker, working with primarily lithography and Japanese woodcut. I received my BFA from the Center for Art and Design at Kathmandu University, and went on to specialize in lithography at Meisei University Japan. My work has been exhibited in the Machida National Print Museum Tokyo, Japan, Ome city Art Museum, Tokyo, the Kunstlerhaus Munich, Germany, the National Art Gallery, Sofia, Bulgaria, and Lakshmi Mittal South Asia Institute of Harvard University. As a survivor of the Tsunami in Japan and the Earthquake in Nepal, my works reflect my experience of the complexity of disasters. I was awarded a six months residency at the Kathmandu Contemporary Arts Center in 2014. My exhibition, entitled From Tokyo to Kathmandu in 2014, reveals my traumatic experience while living in Japan. I teach printmaking at the Kathmandu University Center for Art and Design and completed a fellowship at the Lakshmi Mittal South Asia Institute of Harvard University. I have been invited to prestigious art residences in Steindruck München in Munich, Germany, Guanlan Iriginal Printmaking Base in Shenzhen, China and the Young Artists camp in Tianjin China.
I was born in 1985 and was brought up in Dhankuta, in the eastern region of Nepal. Currently based in Kathmandu, I work as an interdisciplinary artist with a focus on contemporary issues and the effect of migration on my family. My more recent work depicts contemporary Nepalese culture, the misdeeds of political figures, and the systematic suppression of indigenous identity. I understand my work as a medium that links older and the younger generations. How I Forgot My Mother Tongue, 2018, includes texts, drawings and photographs from historical and educational archives, and the Limbu language dictionary used as a means of drawing attention to the government’s strategy of abolishing diverse, indigenous identity.
My exhibitions include: Build/ Unbuild:Home/City, Community Art Project, 2017, Qatar and Nepal; Kathmandu Triennial, 2016; Parallel Realities, Moesgaard Museum of Denmark, 2016/17; Serendipity Arts Festival, Goa, 2014; Rosl Gallery, London, and Namaste- Contemporary Artist Voices, Philadelphia.
I received my MFA from the Central Department of Fine Arts in Tribhuwan University, and am currently teaching at the Department of Fine Arts in Tribhuwan University. As a member of the group ArTree Nepal, I work both independently and at an artist’s collective.
I am the third child of Nanda Bahadur and Laxmi Maya Maharjan, born in February 1968, in Bachhe in Bungmati, a village located in the municipality of Lalitpur, near the country’s capital Kathmandu. Originally of poor origins, my family is now middle-class. I live in the Danu village of Khokana, Lalitpur 21, with my wife and four daughters. I support my family though my profession.
By training, I am a wood craftsman, though more recently, I have produced stone and clay sculptures. I began woodcraft as a child, and embraced this profession at the age of ten. Whilst studying in Adarsha Shaul Yuva Madhyamik Vidhyalaya, which I began at the age of eleven, my father fell ill and passed away. My father’s death plunged my family into dire pecuniary circumstances, for he was the family’s main breadwinner and guardian. As the eldest son the responsibility for supporting for my family passed on to me. I was obliged to discontinue my education at grade six, and received no support from relatives or society.
At the time, I did not know what to do or how to make a living. I saw only darkness. My mother requested that I work and look after my family. She introduced me to Pushparaj Shakya, our neighbour. She pleaded with him to teach me the art of woodcraft. Understanding my family’s situation, he accepted my mother’s request and taught me woodcraft. He kindly reassured me that I should not be afraid, and asked me to sit beside him and learn. I was obliged to travel to Patan for work. I had no money for a bus ticket, and so was obliged to walk from Bungmati to Patan. My shoes wore out after two months, I soon began walking barefoot to Patan. My feet were bruised and wounded all over. I continued this difficult journey for a year while learning my craft, which was an unpaid apprenticeship. I later went to work and learn with Chauthi Muni Shakya. He was very skilled in woodcraft. I began visiting ancient temples, where I would study woodwork more intensely and so learn more. I then began working on my own and selling my sculptures. From the proceeds, I then purchased more wood to make more art. And due to my hard work, my family’s economic situation began to improve.
With a lot of hard work and diligence I managed to establish myself as a successful and wellknown artisan in woodcraft. It is difficult to describe what hardships I was obliged to endure before getting to the point I am now; I have provided a few glimpses here. I am now an artist. Young people come to learn from me. I reject nobody and share my knowledge and skills with everyone. I wish my art to be immortal, and feel confident that I will be able to be a lot more. I am now fifty-one years-old, but will continue working for as long as body and heart are willing.
I am a visual artist and art educator based in Kathmandu. I received my BFA from Kathmandu University, and my MFA from Tribhuvan University. I am also a founding member of Srijanalaya, a non-profit nongovernmental organization in Nepal dedicated to alternative forms of art education and co-founder of Drawing Room KTM, an artist-run learning and studio space.
My works are often inspired by social contexts, which I represent in a variety of media. My works seek to alert people to things they would normally pass by without thinking. My primary media are drawing, painting, photography, installation and murals. I was born to a farming family from Kathmandu.
I have participated in numerous international and national exhibitions, art festivals, residencies and workshops in the Netherlands, Italy, Belgium, Denmark, India, Bangladesh and Nepal. A selection of exhibitions and residencies include: Kathmandu Triennale, The City, 2017; India Art Fair, Nepal Art Council Booth, 2017; Coup De Ville Triennale of Contemporary Art, Sint Niklaas, Belgium, 2016; Parallel Realities, Nepali Artists between Tradition and Globalization, Moesgaard Museum, Aarhus, Denmark 2016/17; Camp-Hub, Post Earthquake Community-based Art Project, Thulo Byasi, Bhaktapur, 2015; 1st and 2nd Kathmandu International Art Festival, 2009 and 2012; Photo Kathmandu Photo/Jazz residency, curated by Philippe Van Cauteren in 2015; Abhisaran-Vijayanagar Residency 2014; Floating Peers, Chittagong, Bangladesh 2013 and the Kathmandu Contemporary Art Center residency (KCAC) 2010. My solo exhibitions were Portraits from The Shadow at Siddhartha Art Gallery in 2009, and Repeating Bodies at Kathmandu Contemporary Art Center in 2010.
I am a visual artist and art educator based in Kathmandu. I am one of the founding members of Srijanalaya, a non-profit organization dedicated to art and education, and co-founder of the Drawing Room KTM, an artist run studio and learning space in Kathmandu. I have participated in several art exhibitions, workshops and residencies. My works have been selected for: Kathmandu Triennale, 2017; 1st and 2nd Kathmandu International Art Festival, 2009 and 2012; Locus of Continuity 2009 organized by the Siddhartha Art Gallery in Hotel Annapurna; Structural Space, 2010, at the Kathmandu Contemporary Arts Center. I hold a BFA in painting from the Kathmandu University Center for Art and Design, and an MFA from Tribhuvan University.
I have been part of the Nepali contemporary art scene for the past four decades.
I gained my MFA from Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India. I was the first Chancellor of the newly founded Nepal Academy of Fine Arts and served in that capacity from 2010 to 2014. I have had more than 165 solo exhibitions and numerous group exhibitions in Nepal and abroad, and have been awarded the Sukirtimaya Rastradeep, 2013; Prabal Gorkha Dakshin Bahu, 2001; the Best Prize at the 30th Salon de climart, Paris, France; and received Honourable Mention at the Asian Art Exhibition, Bangladesh, Dhaka, 1991. I was also awarded with a fellowship, the Cite’ International des Arts Paris, France in 1998.
Manuj Babu Mishra
After completing his BFA at the College of Arts and Crafts, Dhaka, Bangladesh in 1969, Manuj Babu Mishra took up a government post at Janak Siksha Samagri Kendra. He later resigned the security of this post to continue his art. He felt that there was more to his life than mundane office routine. He began teaching art at the at the Lalit Kala Campus of the National Art College, in Bhotahiti, where young artists adored him. Nepal underwent political change during the 1990s, and one of the main contenders, the so-called democratic movement, promised much that was left unfulfilled. Dissatisfied and distressed by the course of events, he confined himself to within the four walls of his own home, more particularly the studio located on the ground floor of his house. This innerexile amounted to a rejection of the prevailing social and political conditions of the time, and he would spend the rest of his life as a hermit, even referring to his home as the Hermitage. Having been orphaned at a very tender age, and thus faced with considerable hardship early on in life, events would prompt a loss of faith in God that ultimately led to his embrace of atheism – decisions characteristic of a rebellious temperament. In his Hermitage he created both brilliant and grotesque works, expressive of his withdrawal from the selfish, superficial and corrupt world. This withdrawal from practical life provided him time to reflect and to give full expression to his thought and ideas. The depictions of himself in most of his paintings invariably take centre stage. He paints self-portraits, sometimes in combination with other subjects, occasionally resulting in complex compositions with broad brushstrokes depicting distorted forms and objects, such as atom bombs, rockets, and tridents in brilliant colours, predominantly in various hues of red.
Although confined to the Hermitage, Mishra kept himself informed through television and the newspapers and was very much in touch with the current events. Disturbed by the political instability and violence of the world, he painted satires of these subjects in vivid colours, with grotesque expressions and distorted forms. As he often remarked, his artworks are more ‘expressions and emotions rather than aesthetics’. In August 2018, Mishra passed away peacefully in his sleep at the age of eighty-two. His absence has left a void in Nepal’s artistic community. He welcomed everyone to his Hermitage for discussions over a cup of tea. He is widely remembered as one of the pioneers of modern art in Nepal. Mishra held his first exhibition in Dhaka, Bangladesh, where he competed his BFA in 1967, followed by many more in Nepal, India, Germany and Denmark.
Written by Swosti Rajbhandari Kayastha
I completed my MFA in sculpture in 2014, at the Centre Department of Fine Arts, Tribhuvan University. I have since worked on various pieces and co-founded the artists’ collective Artree Nepal. I taught sculpture at Tribhuvan University from 2012–14. My mixed media installations depict the concurrence of frequently contradictory traditional beliefs and ideas and contemporary events and ways of life. My most recent works explore how the geopolitics of small countries hover in flux between established and emerging world powers. My work endeavours to express power struggles as these emerge between perspectives on gender by way of a dialogue on taboos and socially forbidden subjects. I focus on the social, economic and political past and present through dialogue and by exploring personal and collective memory. I also investigate alternative histories, such as folklore, oral histories, mythologies etc. along with references to mainstream history. I have been invited to various artist-inresidence programmes, and my works have been exhibited at various international art institutes, galleries and museums. I have been key speaker in several conference panel discussions. As part of the recent travelling exhibition A God, a Beast and a Line, my work has been exhibited at the Dhaka Art Summit 2018, the Para Site – Contemporary Art Center Hong Kong, TS1 Yangoon Myanmar, and the Museum of Modern Art, Warsaw Poland. I presented my work, among other places, at Kathmandu Triennial, 2017; Serendipity Arts Festival, 2017; Parallel Realities 2016/17, Moesgaard Museum Denmark; Asia Contemporary Exhibition, 2016, at the Jeonbuk Museum, Korea. My solo exhibition In Between Uncommon Factors was held at the Nepal Arts Council in 2010.
As a young person I would forever be looking up at the clouds, searching for freedom. My nanny would say, “stop looking at the clouds! Women aren’t free like clouds, and it will only make you sad”. And yet I kept on looking, searching, and hoping for that freedom. For years, I wanted to be a pilot, just so that I could be among the clouds. However, I was influenced by my family, most of whom were artists, and so attended art school. To my surprise I then became passionate about the arts. My subjects were women, which is what most interested me.
Despite mastering painting and drawing, these mediums were too confined to manifest my vision. Desiring to express and empower myself, I sought ways that would best articulate my sensibility. By exploring different mediums, such as installation, space, time, sound and video, I then began to include my own body into my art.
My first performance was unintended. My art is a form of activism for my community, for life, country, and the earth. The performances focused on women, society, identity, environment, and politics. Within Nepal’s socio-political context, my activism redefines the notion of art, the position of women, and the question human rights. I now perform, hold workshops, and bring together community members by creating a platform for Nepali and international artists at my art hub LASANAA /NexUs. I create fixed, open air media, sometimes the sky, the street, and sometimes the air itself. Ultimately, my desire to fly was not physical but spiritual. I wanted to fly among the clouds because I so strongly identify with this: it is part of who I am.
Ajit Kumar Sah
My paintings represent the individual’s attempt to attain utmost harmony with the universe. A butterfly is drawn towards the flower, as a mother has affection for her infant, as the creation is attached to the creator, as one individual is connected to another, as the human body is ultimately assimilated with nature, and as the individual self is in harmony with universal self. My art presents such abstract concepts in concrete visual forms and draws on the idioms, icons, symbols and detailed works inherent in Mithila painting. Over the years, I have been honoured with several awards, such as: Folk Art Talent Award of the Nepal Academy of Fine Arts (NAFA), 2012; Best Award for Fine and Folk Art (NAFA), 2012; Special Award for Folk Art (NAFA), 2014; National Award for the Best Entrepreneurs from the Ministry of Industry, Government of Nepal; First Prize, from Sana Hastakala, 2005, organized by Manusi Consolation Prize, Ministry of Industry, Government of Nepal (GON), 2006, 2007, 2009, medal provided by Sana Hastakala in 2009; certificate of Achievement 2014/4/15, in Izukougen Art Festival, Japan. In 2016, I was awarded the prestigious Rastriya Prativa Puraskar by the Ministry of Culture, Tourism, and Civil Aviation, Government of Nepal. I have worked as a trainer in the Maithili Hastakala Training Program organized by Nepal Trade Union, Dhanusha, 1996. I have also worked as product-development trainer at the SAARC Business Association of home-based workers (SABAN) Nepal.
My artworks have been collected by Global Exchange USA; Ten Thousand Village, USA; The Residence of Hillary Rodham Clinton, USA; Kampo Museum, Japan; People Tree, Japan; Happy Science Embassy of Japan, Kathmandu; JICA, Lamely Deli, France; and in several places in Thailand.
Seema Sharma Shah
I was born in Varanasi. I earned a Ph.D. in the History of Art from Banaras Hindu University in 1998. Over the course of my career, I have participated in over 70 shows held nationally and internationally in Japan, Korea, USA, UK, the Netherlands, France, India, Scotland, and Bangladesh. My solo shows, held between 1989 and 2018 have been exhibited at various galleries in Nepal and India, such as: Siddhartha Art Gallery, Nepal; Gallery Ganesha, India; Juno Art Gallery, South Korea; Jahangir Art Gallery, India; Open Eye Gallery, Great Britain; Prince of Wales Museum, India. I was twice winner of the Best Etching Award at the Art Fest Doral in Miami, in 2013 and 2014, and received Honourable Mention at the 1st Print Biennale, India in 2018. My works depict the images of ancient Nepali sculpture and architecture, Nepali cultural rituals and Hindu and Buddhist mythologies. I am presently Associate Professor at the Central Department of Fine Arts at Tribhuwan University.
Shashi Bikram Shah
I was born in Kathmandu in 1940 and have been working as an artist for nearly five decades. My lifelong fascination with art matured in the 1960s while studying at the Sir J.J. School of Art in Bombay, where I was first introduced to the works of the Impressionists and Surrealists. The influence of these artists is apparent in all my paintings, which seek to capture the world’s suffering. My works have been featured in many public and private collections over the years. My signature theme is the image of the horse. Often equated with Vishnu’s Kalki Avatar, the horse is a metaphor for the Kali Yuga, the present era of humanity, which is, according to the Hindu tradition, characterized by spiritual degeneration, loss of life, and moral degradation. Kalki is also the last of the ten incarnations of Vishnu, the protector God in Hinduism. My paintings often reference other incarnations, such as those of Buddha and Narasimha that have safeguarded humans in order to express the potential for deliverance even during moments of despair.
While my surrealist imagery is rooted in Hindu motifs, it draws no less on contemporary phenomena, such as economic inequality, wars, and terrorism. The horse is thus a politically salient metaphor expressing both ongoing suffering and salvation. The versatility of this metaphor parallels the diversity of my art forms, which range from paintings and drawings through to sculptures. I do not restrict my work to themes of sorrow, however, and I believe that the use of long description in the visual arts ultimately belittle art’s true value: a work of art stands for itself and thus ought to speak for itself. Hence, I always encourage viewers to interpret the images I create according to their own understanding.
Uma Shankar Shah
I was born in Janakpur. I completed my post-graduate work in painting, in 1991. Between 1984 and 2018, my solo shows have been exhibited in different galleries, including: Jahangir Art Gallery, India; Shreedharni Art Gallery, India; Visual Art Gallery, India; Gallery Ganesha, India; Juno Art Gallery, South Korea; Siddhartha Art Gallery, Nepal; Park Gallery, Nepal; Prince of Wales Museum, India. I have participated in many international shows, such as the Bharat Triennale 2005, Asian Museum Japan Exchange Program 1999, and the Miami Art Fest Doral 2013/14. I have taken part in several other solo shows and group shows held nationally and internationally. I was twice winner of the Best Etching Award at the Art Fest Doral in Miami, in 2013 and 2014 and received Honourable Mention in the 1st Print Biennale India, in 2018. I am presently lecturer of painting in Tribhuwan University. I recently took part in the Thailand-Nepal Exchange Program at the Andaman Art Museum in Thailand, which took place in August 2018.
I am a visual artist with a Masters in Fine Art from Tribhuvan University central Department of Fine Art. I am currently a faculty member at the Studio Art programme of School of Arts, Center for Art and Design, Kathmandu University. I am also an art instructor at Kalaalaya School of Art, Kathmandu.
My work mainly addresses questions of social imbalance, racism, and society’s rigid class structure. My paintings are satirical commentaries on social inequality flavoured by my own sense of humour. My artworks contain a hint of hope and positivity with respect to everyday life. I also merge mythological themes with aspects of the ever-changing and fast-paced ways typical of modern life. My compositions in painting and installation blend realism, surreal moods, and symbolism.
My solo exhibition Smile with Me was held at the Siddhartha Art Gallery in 2014. I was artistin- residence at the Kalakriti Art Gallery in Hyderabad, India, and at the Bindu Space for Artists, Lalitpur, Nepal in 2016. I am the awardee of the Prashant Memorial Scholarship 2014 and The Australian Himalayan Foundation Art Award in 2013. My artworks were selected for the India Art Fair, New Delhi, in 2017.
I was born to a Newar, Buddhist household in 1974. I work in metal craft, which is known as repoussé. This is my ancestral occupation, practiced both by my father and grandfather. I have been involved in this profession since childhood, acquiring the techniques from my elders in the workshop. I fashion metal figures depicting, for the most part, Buddhist deities in gold, silver, iron, and brass. My major works are usually of monumental dimensions, and are found in monasteries in Nepal and all over the world, including a forty-three-foot Swoyambhu Chaitya in Germany; a ten-foot Mandala in Osaka, Japan; a twenty-three-foot Kalachakra Mandala in Amado, Tibet; a seven-foot Padmasambhava in New Zealand, and a twelve-foot Bhairav at the Shanghai Expo, 2010. My works are located throughout Nepal, at the Kopan Monastery, the Tibetan Gompas, in Solukhumbum, and in Upper Mustang.
I was born on 25 August 1972. Now a master sculptor, I began my creative journey at the age of thirteen. Initially working under the direction and guidance of my father, I later went on to study with the highly esteemed paubha painter, D.P. Lama before studying with Prem Man Chitrachar and gaining a degree in civil engineering. I honed my skills as an apprentice for the late Siddhi Raj Shakya. These experiences allowed me to establish my own reputation and career. I am among the few artisans credited with the survival and preservation of the ancient Newari version of lost-wax casting. I have taught throughout Nepal and have been a key artisan in international workshops in Lhasa and Thailand. An international grant from the United States Embassy in Dhaka enabled me to share in-depth knowledge of casting with a group of visiting Bangladeshi students. I have received international recognition for restoration work (lasting over ten years) on four-foot and six-foot Buddha statues in Nepal’s most famous temples and bihars. I have restored six statues in the Swayambhunath and twelve in the Patan Durbar, inside the Mulchowk on the Bhagwati torana. My own work is exhibited internationally, in private and public collections.
Siddhi Muni Shakya (1932–2001)
An inspiration to many contemporary paubha artists shows Siddhi Muni Shakya was the son of Ananda Muni Shakya, another legendary traditional paubha artist, and one among a few who had travelled to Tibet during the mid-twentieth century to paint for the kings.
Ananda Muni had introduced a new style in religious art; a hybrid of Newar, Tibetan, and Chinese aesthetics leaving a legacy that was later taken up by his son, Siddhi Muni. Currently, the paintings of both artists are considered by younger generations of traditional artists as great masters, and are studied in great detail by those aspiring to paint in this tradition. Siddhi Muni experimented with artistic styles and techniques and went on to master the black-andwhite technique; he was the first to introduce the decoratively painted frames in his works. In spite of his innovations, he was a strict follower of canonic iconography, as dictated by religious texts. He made use of mineral colours in his paintings, and their lustre can be seen in his luminous paintings even today.
Owing to the meticulous nature of the work, Siddhi Muni often fell ill, and retired from full-time painting at the age of forty-eight. He only ceased practicing his art a few months prior to his death. His fondness for detail can be seen in many of his works, including the one exhibited in present exhibition. In later years, his attention to detail diminished due to his failing eyesight.
Over the course of his career as a renowned paubha painter, he was visited by great personalities and monks, who would travel from other regions of Nepal, India and Tibet to commission his paintings. Today his paintings have been exhibited in many countries, among other, India, Germany, Britain, the United States, Switzerland, and France.
Written by Swosti Rajbhandari Kayastha
Surendra Man Shakya
Raised in a family acclaimed for their skill in the traditional form of paubha painting, Surendra Man Shakya had a lot to live up to as the son of the famous Siddhi Muni Shakya and grandson of the legendary Ananda Muni Shakya. He is the third generation of traditional paubha artists in his family. In a departure from tradition, for it is usually the son who follows the father, he is proud that the legacy is being continued by his daughter, Priya Shakya. Shakya’s deep interest in the arts developed while observing his father, and the priests, both Newar Vajracharyas and Tibetan gurus, who visited his home to commission paintings from his father. Knowing that it is a very difficult career to choose, however, his father discouraged him from taking up this profession. Nevertheless, he continued his practice in secret. One day, a patron who was visiting his house, noticed his paintings and suggested that he pursue the profession. Thenceforth, Surenda trained under his father. When his father’s health began to fail, the former continued to encourage him, which marked the beginning of his formal journey in this field.
Continuing the family legacy of my grandfather and father, Surendra seeks utmost versatility when approaching his work. He depicts minute details in his compositions, though occasionally enjoys producing less intricate work. Paubha painting is a form of meditation, and is his mantra; not only a matter of sheer skill, the art form requires perseverance and a deep knowledge of the canonic iconography of deities. Furthermore, painting the gods and goddesses is a highly respected art. Through meditation, he expresses the deities that first take form in the mind before being transferred to the canvas. He continues to use stone and mineral colour brought from Tibet by merchants with whom his grandfather and father worked. The lustre of this extraordinary medium is unparalleled.
Written by Swosti Rajbhandari Kayastha
Gopal Kalapremi Shrestha
I was born in Maharjgunj, Kathmandu, in 1965. Raised in poverty, I was commonly referred to as the “dirty little child” since I was always busy playing with clay from which I would create images. As a child I had no idea of what I was creating, but knew I was attracted to clay, and clay seemed to be attracted to me. Since I was always dirty, other parents forbade their children play with me. A loner, my only friend was clay.
Despite the objection to my fascination with clay not only among outsiders, but by my father as well, I continued to experiment with it. I rejected my given name of Gopal and began calling myself “Kalapremi”, which means lover of art. Even now I love to be addressed as Kalapremi, he who shares, transfers, and translates ideas into art forms. In 1983, I started intermediate studies in Fine Arts at Lalitkala Campus in Kathmandu, and began teaching at the Bhanubhakta School. Since my English was not very good, I failed to graduate ten times consecutively. Though an academic failure, I had become well-known as a sculptor, and had already been awarded various honours. During this period, I also became involved in a government project for the promotion of ceramics and small-scale industry. As an artist and teacher, my main responsibility was to train traditional potters from Bhaktapur and Thimi in sculpture and contemporary pottery. This marked my transition from sculpture to ceramics. This training period allowed me not only to study, experiment and research ceramics, but also gave me an opportunity to incorporate traditional Nepali crafts and local materials into contemporary sculpture and pottery. This led to my first solo ceramics exhibition entitled Peace from Love.
I began to be acknowledged not only as a sculptor, but also as a contemporary ceramics artist. Solo exhibitions in ceramics then followed, among which, Goldfish followed by The Muse were the most recognised and appreciated. I have also participated in several national and international residency programmes, and taught workshops in various countries throughout Asia and Europe. As an artist, I do not believe in a single style; rather, my goal is to keep experimenting and sharing my skills and knowledge with upcoming artists working in this field. Of late, I have been inspired by socio-political issues, and have been applying my understanding of these to sculpture and ceramics.
One of the most sought-after artists from South Asia, Laxman Shrestha was born in Nepal in 1939. Following his family’s disapproval of his interests in pursing art as a career, he was obliged to leave home. He preferred fine art to texts ever since his childhood, and would often draw images in his textbooks rather than writing notes. He left home for Mumbai, home to one of the most respected art colleges in India, namely, the Sir Jamshedji Jeejeebhoy School of Art. Having excelled in his studies there, he won a scholarship to study art in Paris, the centre of the art world at the time. He joined the École national supérieure des Beaux-Arts, one of the most celebrated art schools in the world, and later studied at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière, also in Paris. He continued his studies at the Central School of Art in London. Considered a loner, who would rather immerse himself in a book or muse during long solitary walks, he sought to establish a style of his own after his long years of training and practice in Paris and London. Today, his style is established, distinguished and immediately recognisable to anyone in the field. Having initiated his journey in art during the age of abstraction, his works bear testimony to this genre’s continued place. His paintings are distinguished by the interplay of idealised topography and floating forms into which the artist weaves a blend of colours, lending to his compositions a surreal sense of idealised landscapes. He has exhibited, among other places, in Nepal, several times, in India, the United States, Great Britain, Germany, and Kenya.
Written by Swosti Rajbhandari Kayastha
Samundra Man Shrestha
I was born in 1980 and have been interested in drawing and painting for as long as I can remember. At the age of fourteen I began learning traditional arts, primarily under the tutorship of Premman Chitrakar. After completing high school, I pursued formal studies in fine arts at the Nepal Fine Arts Campus. I have participated in many national and international group exhibitions, notably at the India Art Fair 2016, and at the Newar Painting Art Show at 798 Art village Beijing, China in 2016. I have been awarded many national and international prizes; the first of a total of four national prizes, I won at the age of seventeen. I have also won three international awards. Under the auspices of the Tara Foundation, I headed a team of 20 artists between 2001 and 2002, who completed a series of large-scale murals depicting around one hundred Buddhist deities at the German Monastery in Lumbini.
My solo exhibition was organized by the Bodhisatva Gallery in 2016, which included 70 of my paintings. People flocked to view Nepal’s smallest Paubha, a 3 mm figure of the Amitabh Buddha. A further point of special attraction was a painting of an extremely terrifying Vajrapani Bhairav. Several newspapers wrote articles on the exhibition, and one of the weeklies, Saptahik, nominated the work “story of the year 2073 (2016 in the Gregorian calendar) in the field of arts.”
Uday Charan Shrestha
Born to a family in which arts and crafts were a hobby practiced by both grandfather and father, Uday Charan Shrestha developed an interest in the field in his early childhood. Noticing his interest in art, and to foster his obvious talent, the school he attended sent him to Bal Mandir (a government run children’s home). The centre offered various activities for school children twice a week, and naturally Shrestha chose drawing and painting. Here, he emphasized portrait painting and drawing, still life, and everyday compositions, which he enjoyed immensely. He was introduced to the traditional arts through some friends, who came to Bal Mandir to receive tuition in the traditional paubha arts by great masters. This latter form of art, to which he has been devoted ever since, appealed to him. He is one of the first among the traditional paubha artists – who commonly learn from great masters before practicing independently – to obtain an academic degree in fine arts.
His meticulously rendered compositions adhere strictly to the Sadhanas, or the canon of deity iconography. Although traditional paubha painting uses mineral and stone colour, the artist also experiments with oil and acrylic paints, a medium he has mastered in minute detail, so precise that the works can be looked at through a magnifying glass. The unique feature of his art is the constant experimental approach: a play on light, threedimensional forms and colouring techniques with which he sustains minute attention to detail. Initially, criticised for new modes of expression, his work later became accepted and admired. Today he is celebrated as one of most innovative among the traditional artists.
Written by Swosti Rajbhandari Kayastha
I was born in Pokhara in 1978, where I am presently based. I graduated in painting from Tribhuvan University Fine Art Campus in Kathmandu. My work treats the various socio-political crises of my country and the contemporary world. I studied painting but also frequently work in other media, namely, installation, performance and video.
I have held six-solo exhibitions and several prestigious group exhibitions in Nepal, India, Great Britain, Japan, Denmark, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Taiwan, Sri Lanka, Hong Kong and South Korea. Among my important group exhibitions are: Nepal Parallel Realities, Moesgaard Museum, Denmark, 2016/17; The 5th Fukuoka, Asian Art Triennial, Japan, 2014; Dhaka Art Summit, Bangladesh, 2014; Colombo Art Biennale, Sri Lanka, 2014; Kathmandu International Art Festival, 2010 and 2012.
Birendra Pratap Singh
I was educated at Banaras Hindu University and received my BFA in Painting in 1976; I studied graphic printmaking at Lalit Kala Academy in Nepal, in 1977, and painting in 1980. My work has been exhibited in India, Bangladesh, South Korea, Japan and Great Britain, as well as in Nepal. My paintings form part of collections at the Fukuoka Art Museum in Japan and at Kathmandu’s Tribhuvan National Airport, as well as in private collections in Nepal and abroad.
S. C. Suman
I taught myself the art of Mithila painting by watching my grandmother practicing the technique of ritual painting. I am a textile designer by profession and a radio host in Biratnagar. I am also a former Council Member, and former Head of Department at the Folk Arts Department of the Nepal Academy of Fine Arts (2014–2018). I have worked for different organisations in the development of art and artists for the past 30 years. I have served as a Chief Judge for various art competitions, and have organised art workshops in Nepal abroad between 2002 and 2018. My work has been exhibited at: 1st Kathmandu International Art Festival; Kathmandu Triennale 2017; 7th Beijing International Art Biennale, 2017; 3rd Maritime Silk Road International Art Festival, 2017; National Art Exhibition – Quanzhou, China, 2017; Below the Clouds, exhibition of Nepalese Arts at Coombo Gallery Great Britain, 2017; 4th International Art Festival 2018, Korea; Nepal Art Fair, Bangladesh, 2018.
I have presented sixteen solo exhibitions and over 25 group exhibitions, both in Nepal and abroad. I have participated in over 50 national and international art camps. I have received several prestigious awards, including the so-called National Talent, letters of appreciation from the Embassy of India, the BP Koirala India-Nepal Foundation, and certificates of excellence from Kathmandu University and the American Embassy, Nepal. I have also spoken at several national-level talks and lectures and written articles on fine art and culture, which have been published in national daily papers and magazines. My research on Mithila, Awadhi, Tharu, Santhal, Dhima, and other regional and folk art cultures was facilitated by the Chetna Samrakchhan Pratisthan and the Nepal Academy of Fine Arts.
I am a visual artist with a Master in Fine Arts from Tribhuwan University, Nepal. I have been working as an artist in Nepal since 1990, and am co-founder of the Kasthamandap Art Studio and E-Arts Nepal. In addition to sixteen solo-exhibitions held in Nepal and Korea, my works have been exhibited in many National and International galleries since 1990. I received a fellowship from Korea National University of Arts in South Korea in 2008. I was awarded the Consolation Prize by the Sirjana Art Gallery in 1993, and the National Art Exhibition Prize in 1998, the Third and First Prizes of the National Art Exhibition in 2000 and 2005 respectively, and the Gold Medal in 2008 from Arniko Yuwa Sewa Kosh. I was honoured with the Young Achiever’s Award 2011 by Today’s Youth Asia and was awarded by Old Wind, Chinichi News Paper Japan. I was also awarded the Master Tej Bahadur Chitrakar and Bhadra Kumari Ghale awards in 2013 and 2014 respectively, and honoured by Tamrakar Samaj in 2014. I received the Hem Ganga-Mahila Kala Prativa Puruskar in 2017.
My works have been collected by Nepal Art Council, Nepal Investment Bank, Agni Group, Everest Bank, Annapurna Hotel, NIC Bank, Fulbari Resort, VOITH Complex (Toyota), Annapurna Hotel, ACE Apartments, Civil Group, Andaman Art Museum- Thailand, Vertical Gallery-Thailand, Asian Art Link-Vietnam, Sasaran Art Museum-Malaysia, Chautara Gallery-Holland, and private collections in Nepal and abroad.
I live and work in Kathmandu.
My works may be viewed at www.asha-erina.com or www.eartsnepal.com.
Mukti Singh Thapa
After completing his secondary education, Mukti Singh Thapa’s encounter with the traditional form of religious painting came as a fateful coincidence. It was following of the death construction labourer at a site near his home, where a ritual was being conducted in the Buddhist tradition, that the artist first saw a traditional painting in all its intricacy and detail. Intrigued by its form, beauty, and composition, he felt a compelling desire and interest to learn the style. Hailing from central Nepal, he moved to Kathmandu to learn the intricate forms of this art. At the age of fourteen, when first arriving at the capital city, he felt lost and was unaware of the authorised places designated for practicing the art he desired to master.
He was introduced and began work at a handicraft centre that produced wooden artefacts, such as alters, boxes and souvenir items. Noticing his interest in painting, the owner then introduced him to Tibetan masters, known as lamas or priests, who had come from India to paint a mural in a monastery. He trained under these master lamas and learned that the first painting to intrigue him was depicted in the Wheel of Life. He visited museums in Kathmandu, where he witnessed the traditional Newar mural and paubha paintings and realised that it was just this detail that he sought to learn. He visited many places search in vain for a teacher. Resolved to learn this style, he purchased a camera and took pictures of the wall and cloth paintings, the wooden reliefs from temples, viharas or monasteries of all the three cities in the Kathmandu Valley, namely, of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and Patan during the 1970s, and from which he would then create copies. His dedication and hard work earned him the national prize in the traditional art category. He has taken part in exhibitions in Bangkok and different locations in America. His paintings adorn the walls of museums, public and private venues in America, Germany, Italy, Australia, Japan and many more countries. Though having mastered the technique and the style, his paintings stand out from other traditional paintings, due to their greater presentational emphasis. He employs a variety of techniques, uncommon for the traditional style, in which different deities are juxtaposed, magnifying and reducing the subject to create unique, highly detailed compositions.
Written by Swosti Rajbhandari Kayastha, based on a conversation with the artist.
Born in Nepal to a Tibetan Buddhist family, I was later trained in traditional thangka painting by my father. I evolved a language from the structured, underlying grid systems and symbols that bring the forms of the deities. Through centuries of reproduction, the essences of many of these spiritual tools have been lost. Significant details have been abandoned or overlooked as a consequence of a tourist patronage ignorant of the ritual usage of this form of painting.
I borrow from Tibetan Buddhist iconography to abstract, fragment and reconstruct the traditional image, to investigate and explore the diasporic experience as well as the dichotomy found wherever sacred and secular culture collides. By employing mass culture’s ubiquitous noise, I attempt to import these representations into a heightened dialogue where deities, icons and global affairs can be renegotiated into a mirror-like transmutation.
My works has been exhibited throughout the United States, Europe and Asia including: Rubin Museum of Art; Queens Museum of Art; Asian Art Museum of San Francisco; Massachusetts Museum of Contemporary Art; Berkeley Art Museum; Songzhuang Art Center, Beijing; Victoria and Albert Museum, London; QAGOMA, Australia; Dhaka Art Summit, Bangladesh; Kunst Museum Bochum, Germany. My works are held in numerous private and public collections including: Asian Art Museum of San Francisco; Victoria and Albert Museum, London; Virginia Museum of Fine Arts; QAGOMA, Australia; World Museum of Liverpool; Rubin Museum of Art; Samdani Art Foundation; Uli Sigg Collection.